What is CT (computed tomography)?
Computed tomography, known as CT, is radiological method of recording which beside X-ray applies tomography, a method that is based on a mathematical procedure of image processing or reconstruction of tomographic images with the use of modern computers and software packages in them.
Method of digital geometry processing is used to generate 3D images recorded inside of the object, which makes large series of 2D (two-dimensional) X-ray images taken during one rotation of the device around its axis.
How does CT work?
CT scanner is a radiographic machine in the form of a large box with a circular hole, or short tunnel in the center. The patient lies on a narrow examination table that moves through this hole or tunnel and is exposed to effects of X-ray radiation. Around the patient there is a rotating X-ray tube and X-ray electron detector, located in opposite direction in the ring, which is the moving part of the scanner. The workstation computer, which with the help of a computer program embedded in it processes, the recorded data is located in a separate room, and its operation is controlled by a doctor and to trained technicians.
With computed tomography you can get precise medical diagnosis of the human body, such as:
- CT of the head
- CT of paranasal sinuses
- CT of middle ear and mastoid
- CT of facial bones
- CT of thorax
- CT of the abdomen and small pelvis
- CT of the cervical spine
- CT of thoracic spine
- CT of the lumbar spine
- CT of extremities
- CT of carotid angiography
- CT phlebography
- CT enterography
- CT colonography etc.
Risks of use
- Irradiation – There is always the possibility of cancer in excessive radiation exposure in the course of this method (in long and frequent recording). However, the benefits of accurate diagnosis outweigh the risk.
- The appearance of allergy to contrast agent – This can be prevented by using anti allergic drugs 24 hours prior to computed tomography, or by application of various tests that do not require the use of contrasting material. The risk of serious allergic reaction to contrast media containing iodine is very small, and radiology departments are well-equipped for the rapid rehabilitation of allergic reactions.
- Making Contrast – If a greater amount of contrasting materials leaking from a container is poured and spread on the skin or injected under the skin (after damage to the veins in this pump), can lead to skin damage blood vessels and nerves, although it is unlikely that this occurs. If the patient feels pain during the injection of contrast (on the site of injection), must immediately inform the doctor.
- Pregnancy – Pregnant women are exposed to this method only if they are vitally affected.